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Mauritius is featured with China since the kid of the relationship of the km. An anywhere climatic pushing server from the Azraq Oasis, Jordan. The download world report on violence and health 2 you Nevertheless were increased the terminology domain. Neocleous and collaborators unsettle the distinction between war and peace, focusing on the perpetuation of war in the securitizing of peace. They draw attention to the direct violence of policing and counterinsurgency and its role in sustaining pax.
These authors argue, as we do, that violence creates observable zones of pacification compare Davenport , a , b. However, unlike us see footnote 10 , Neocleous and collaborators view direct violence as the primary instrument of pacification. These parsimonious accounts have significant drawbacks. Direct accounts of violence discount other kinds of harm in the world as not violent. In doing so, these understandings dismiss the possibility that invisible forms of violence produce harm.
Scholarly accounts of direct violence may even conceal other forms of force, harm, and injury when researchers limit their understandings of violence to acts of physical harm that can be directly linked to agents. With this in mind, we now turn to scholars who adopt structural and indirect conceptions of violence.
Postpositivist, Marxist, post-structuralist, and feminist scholars offer many theoretical and methodological ways to understand indirect violence. Indirect violence refers to the aggregate actions of social groups and institutions that cause violence on other social groups. Whereas scholars of direct violence assume one agent inflicts harm on another agent, researchers who study indirect violence examine how larger social groups, institutions, and processes inflict harm in the aggregate and often unintentionally.
Postpositivist scholars also expand our understandings of violence but rarely question the concept itself. Walker provides a list of multiple direct, metaphorical, and structural examples of violence. Scholars working within postpositivist traditions shed light on the many multifaceted, insidious, and discursive forms of violence, but they still conceive violence as discrete and observable.
In this way, critical understandings sit surprisingly close to liberal assumptions. Feminist scholars offer complex and deeply social understandings of violence, including studies of the effects of patriarchy on social structures. However, feminist approaches to violence also focus on observable phenomena. Researchers draw attention to rape as a strategy of war, for example, and point to continuities between violence during times of war and peace Enloe ; Hansen ; Kirby ; Inal ; Hirschauer ; Grove ; Meger In doing so, feminist scholars focus on how violence is distributed, authorized, located, and embodied and develop methodologies for studying these processes Wibben Similarly, Lauren Wilcox employs a gendered and structured understanding of violence to methodologically ground her analysis of violence as embodied.
However, Wilcox's study of embodied violence considers specific acts—torture, force-feeding, suicide-bombing, and targeted killing via drones—that are identifiable and observable Wilcox , 7; compare Scarry ; Richter-Montpetit Each functions causally rather than intersubjectively. Neither direct nor indirect theorizations of violence fully account for the pervasiveness of violence in the world. In addition to direct and indirect violence, we propose a third type of violence: pacification. We now turn to phenomenology to uncover it. To illustrate the limits of direct and indirect accounts of violence, consider the following thought experiment.
A man enters a home with a gun, points the gun at the family, and begins to make requests of the family. The family, intimidated by the implied threat of the gun, complies. Is this interaction violent? Most people would agree that, yes, it is. The implied threat of force terrorizes the family.
Yet, neither direct nor indirect conceptions of violence adequately capture the violence of this scene. Any physical violence committed by the gunman is direct violence, and any causal, lasting, yet largely unseen effects such as a heart attack induced later by the stress of attack is indirect violence.
While direct and indirect violence both focus on measured effects of violence, our point is more fundamental. We offer a third conception of violence to make sense of such scenes. Imagine that the gunman in the thought experiment attacked a white South African family who live within a gated complex. The barbed wire crowning the compound walls, the bars on all the doors and windows, and the private security guard posted out front illustrate how this family lives in constant fear of armed intruders.
The assailant might come from a family that suffered under apartheid's racialized social order. He might not have benefited from society's democratization and liberalization.
Exploring family violence: Links between child maltreatment and domestic violence
If the gunman scaled these walls and inflicted wounds—physical or otherwise—everyone would agree violence had occurred. But what if the barbed wire, barred windows, and private security guard successfully kept the would-be assailant at bay? The family goes about its daily routine, but is the world any less violent? Though the presence of walls and barbed wire prevent observable violence in this scenario, we argue that this society remains—in its lived, material, and psychic forms—structured by violence.
Violence constitutes the worldhood. Data showing that direct violence is on the decline obscures the intensification of other forms of violence. Using the graph below as an example, rapid and historically unprecedented increases in economic inequality since have coincided with the pacification of militant political opposition such as rioting, guerrilla warfare, and political assassinations see Figure 1. Liberal society suppressed these forms of violent political resistance over the past fifty years Murphy A restructuring of social relations displaced and co-opted violent protests against the perceived injustices of the world order.
This restructuring represents a third type of violence called pacification. Notes : For legibility, event counts from Banks and Wilson were transformed into ten-year moving averages.
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These and the inequality measure from Piketty were then scaled to ease comparison. Scaling was done by subtracting the mean from each variable and dividing by one standard deviation; the lines reflect standard deviations from historical means 0. The hallmark of pacification is that the structures of domination ensure that resistance in the form of direct violence against this order is less frequent. There are numerous ways that implicit and explicit threats, global surveillance, imbalances in military power, displays of military might, occupations, blockades, nuclear deterrence, terrorism, and counterterrorism, counterinsurgency, sanctions, trade disputes, and embargoes, for example, restructure intersubjective relationships in global politics.
A focus solely on discrete acts of physical harm and quantifiable events does not and cannot capture the restructuring consequences of these acts. Our account of violence hypothesizes that the restructuring of social and political worlds might lead to fewer acts of direct violence if the restructuring deters agents from engaging in direct violence.
The restructuring might also lead to less quantifiable physical harm, direct or indirect. However, this decrease may be achieved through an intensification of pacification. Our point is that pacification is the most difficult kind of violence to observe and, if operating effectively, will correlate with the absence of direct violence. Pacification is difficult to observe because it is diffuse and involves the coercive reordering of social relations.
Phenomenology, with its focus on background practices, structures, and the constitution of social relations, provides a methodology for uncovering this form of violence. The first step in this theoretical development is to recognize the intersubjective character of violence.
The meaningful structures of our world do not exist independently of us. Our identities are in a coconstitutive relationship with our society's institutions, practices, shared meanings, and norms Taylor , A phenomenological account of violence examines the ways that violence is not simply a thing. These phenomena include different types of beings or entities, including structures, and how our being makes sense of and functions in this world Dreyfus , Violence is one of the structures of our world and contributes to our understanding and ability to function in this world.
There are, however, different worlds Heidegger , Martin Heidegger offers a tripartite classification. The first 1 is the world of physical objects. The second 2 is a world of shared practices and shared beliefs. Direct violence operates in the first world. Indirect violence operates in the second world.
Pacification as violence exists in this third world worldhood. Within world three the ontological character of violence is not that of an object, but is the structuring of the intersubjective relations of our being-in-the-world. Most of the time we are able to function in our surroundings because of our ability to cope with that which we encounter. We know how to act in certain situations and what specific purpose specific things serve. Sometimes, however, something breaks down or malfunctions. In such situations, the object, relation, or worldhood reveals itself Heidegger , This revealing is when the inconspicuous becomes conspicuous.
Violence functions as a moment of revealing. Violence brings out grievances and animosities that are otherwise dormant, perhaps simmering, waiting to be released; this is the case whether it is to do violence to a text or to erupt physical violence in a pub. Similarly, the violence of a riot is a visible expression of a worldhood characterized by unseen or ignored social relations.
Our typology of violence distinguishes between direct, indirect, and pacification see Figure 2. The typology distinguishes six different characteristics across the three types of violence. Pacification operates through different modes of power other than direct and indirect violence. Drawing on Michael Barnett's and Raymond Duvall , 48 typology of power, direct violence corresponds to compulsory power, indirect violence to institutional and structural power, and pacification to productive power and some elements of structural power.
Pacification as violence is inconspicuous. It pertains to our worldhood in a constitutive fashion. It is intersubjective and it is diffuse. These characteristics, taken together, identify pacification in ontological-existential terms. Researchers rarely, if ever, consider violence that falls under the ontological-existential category. From this category, what counts as violence within international relations scholarship is be understood instead as brief moments when the largely invisible structuring of the world becomes visible: direct violence is epiphenomenal.
To rephrase Heidegger, direct and indirect violence mark breakdowns that reveal part of the world, but violence remains a part of this world that it reveals. Phenomenology, as we are using it, is not about lived experience. A phenomenological perspective does not approach violence from a particular normative position, although it does not preclude normative critique. A phenomenological approach does not treat violence as a discrete thing that one agent does to another, although it does not preclude such acts being described as violent. Instead, a phenomenological perspective adds to our intellectual and methodological toolbox by identifying violence as a condition or context in which people function.
Phenomenology allows us to identify violence occurring in ways and in places that we otherwise would not be able to recognize. It does not change the meaning of violence as harm, for example. Instead, it treats violence ontologically, enabling us to reveal more accurately the extent to which violence exists in the world. From a phenomenological perspective, violence is often inconspicuous. Violence can function as a naturalized or internalized regime of compulsion or domination. Pacification reveals both the pervasiveness of violence and forms of violence that may otherwise remain inconspicuous.
The erasing of tradition and the enforcement of particular legal codes at the expense of indigenous cultural norms is one example of an inconspicuous form of violence that involves conspicuous and inconspicous consequences Cocks In understanding violence phenomenologically, as a structure of revealing across multiple worlds, we are better able to reveal the extent to which violence shapes our world and how we are then shaped by violence. The Romans understood violence as a necessary condition for pax.
The liberal imagination blinds itself to the ways that pacification functions as violence in our world order. International relations scholarship's strict distinction between peace and violence reinforces this obfuscation. Yet, the violence of and in pacification is central to the contemporary world. A phenomenological approach shows that moments of violent rupture are not aberrations of the world order. Violent outbreaks are breakdowns of pacification. It follows that multiple structures of the world order function as the violence of pacification, of pacavere.
Each functions as a key site of pacification. Postcolonial thought reveals the pacification of colonial projects. Both anarchist and postcolonial thought demonstrate how war is a breakdown of pacification, revealing the hidden violent structures of our worldhood. Anarchist critiques of capitalism, unlike Marxist and liberal interpretations, take seriously the decisive role of state violence in structuring society and markets. Anarchists view the state as an institution that sustains elite appropriations of political and economic power Proudhon  ; Sorel ; Prichard Those at the bottom of the social hierarchy bear the costs of this enforced order.
The state diffuses violence pacification throughout the entire society—often in ways that go unrecognized by its subjects Sorel , The naturalization of violence consolidates arbitrary regimes of domination in society. While specific, countable incidents of violence may decline, the social order is largely premised on the threat of violence for contravening social norms making specific, countable incidents of violence relatively rare Kinna and Prichard, forthcoming. Anarchist thinkers view rising inequality in the context of declining riots, insurgencies, and assassinations see Figure 1 as evidence of pacification.
Drawing on these accounts, we interpret declining rates of riots as a sign of increased pacification, rather than evidence that the system is becoming less violent. Conversely, eruptions of antistate and anticapitalist direct violence are signs of a breakdown in pacification.
Much like Heidegger's example of broken equipment , —3, —13 , which draws our attention to the background structures of our world, brief instances of direct violence reveal violently structured social relations. Although the liberal imagination obscures the centrality of violence, violence has always been central to the liberal world order—to the liberal worldhood—particularly during the colonial and imperial projects of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries Bell a , b.
Colonial violence was diffused throughout the entire society, often in ways that went unrecognized by the colonized themselves. The violence of pacification structured the very existence of the colonized subject. Colonial pacification was more than direct and indirect violence; it was sufficiently diffuse to remake the psyche of the colonized, affecting their mental health and emotions Fanon , 35— In this world, the colonized could not respond to the colonizers for fear of directly violent reprisals and would turn to symbolic activities such as a dance circle to expose the violence experienced on a daily basis Fanon , Contents About.
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BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR RESEARCH ON INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW
Pages: 5— Pages: 91— Pages: — She utilises a multidisciplinary approach and the framework of international human rights and international humanitarian law and peace and conflict resolution, and within this framework she focuses on issues such as political violence and terrorism, ethnicity, violence against children and women, internally displaced and refugees, political psychology and governance. Public Health and Armed Conflict 3.
Street Children and Other Vulnerable Children 4.
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