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Additionally, an extract from a hybrid of L. In the present study, L. It may therefore be ill-suited for medicinal use, or at least dose-limited. A study of L. Porcher recommended root bark as the medicinal part of L. Interestingly, Porcher also suggested L. Perhaps the most notable L. Further study should focus on bioassay-guided fractionation, a recursive process of fractionation and bioassay to identify individual active compounds and synergistic relationships. Specifically, the HPLC methods developed for F2 and could be used to produce further fractions with adaptation to preparative liquid chromatography.

In vivo testing of the antibacterial properties of extracts active in vitro is also a logical next step in this research. Given the potential of some of these extracts as adjuvants rather than direct antibiotics, they may be tested as adjuvants with existing, FDA-approved antibiotics for the potentiation of antibacterial activity in wound infections. In total, 37 plant species were described as having antiseptic applications 5. As the global spread of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria continues, it is increasingly important to consider all possible sources of new, and perhaps old, treatments.

Samples of Liriodendron tulipifera , Aralia spinosa , and Quercus alba were identified and collected in May from Lullwater Preserve on the Emory University campus in Atlanta, Georgia. Leaves were gathered manually and a handsaw was used to cut segments of roots and branches for bark collection. The resulting residue was suspended in H 2 O, frozen, and lyophilized. Working culture was added to extracts and controls in well microtiter plates Grenier-Bio such that each well contained a total volume of 0.

Vehicle controls and antibiotic controls ampicillin, kanamycin, and vancomycin for Staphylococcus spp.


Extracts and vehicle were tested at a concentration range of 2. Optical density OD was measured using a BioTek Cytation3 plate reader at initial and final time points, to account for extract colour. Extracts active against multidrug-resistant A. Extracts were assessed at sub-IC 50 concentrations for growth, ranging from 2. The vehicle and positive control, D-F2, were assessed from 2. Examination of the quorum quenching potential of extracts against S.

Civil War Records: Basic Research Sources

The assay was conducted in tissue culture-treated clear bottom, black-sided well microtiter plates Costar with a final well volume of 0. Extracts were assessed at sub-MIC 50 concentrations, ranging from 0. Vehicle and positive control, C-F2, were also assessed from 0. Louis, MO as previously described 3. The capillary temperature was All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article and its Supplementary Information Files. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States. Atlanta, GA, Stewart, P. Antibiotic resistance of bacteria in biofilms.

Quave, C. Castanea sativa European Chestnut leaf extracts rich in ursene and oeanene derivatives block Staphylococcus aureus virulence and pathogenesis without detectable resistance.

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Wu, H. Strategies for combating bacterial biofilm infections. Porcher, F. Resources of the Southern Fields and Forests. Sharifi-Rad, J. Plants of the genus Allium as antibacterial agents: From tradition to pharmacy. Cell Mol Biol 62 , 57—68 Jakobsen, T. Ajoene, a sulfur-rich molecule from garlic, inhibits genes controlled by quorum sensing.

The structure, occurrence and biological activity of ellagitannins: a general review. Moore, S. Richmond, National Library of Medicine. Ekor, M. The growing use of herbal medicines: issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety. Newman, D. Natural products as sources of new drugs from to Tolmacheva, A. Antibacterial and quorum sensing regulatory activities of some traditional Eastern-European medicinal plants. Hayes, L.

14. The Civil War

Botanical Gazette , — Kusari, S. Li, H. Antimycobacterial natural products from endophytes of the medicinal plant Aralia nudicaulis. Nat Prod Commun 10 , — Webster, D. Antimycobacterial screening of traditional medicinal plants using the microplate resazurin assay. Karioti, A. Antimicrobial properties of Quercus ilex L. Sati, S.

Analysis and antimicrobial activity of volatile constituents from Quercus leucotrichophora Fagaceae bark. Hobby, G. Quercus cerris extracts limit Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation. Jamil, M. Isolation of antibacterial compounds from Quercus dilatata L. Wan Nor Amilah, Wa. In vitro antibacterial activity of Quercus infectoria gall extracts against multidrug resistant bacteria. Trop Biomed 31 , — Deryabin, D. Antibacterial and anti-quorum sensing molecular composition derived from Quercus cortex Oak bark extract.

Mohebi, R. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity of acorn herbal extract against some Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

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Roum Arch Microbiol Immunol 70 , — Chusri, S. Detailed studies on Quercus infectoria Olivier nutgalls as an alternative treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.

The war in the East 1861–May 1863

Chung, K. Tannins and human health: a review. Akiyama, H. Antibacterial action of several tannins against Staphylococcus aureus.

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These parts corresponded sometimes to battles or campaigns and sometimes to special aspects of the war: cavalry, artillery and forts, prison camps, hospitals, the war at sea, songs and poetry, portraits of important people. They provided a format in which editor-in-chief, Francis Trevelyan Miller and managing editor Robert S. Lanier ? Multiple editors, sons of editors, Generals and sons of Generals, Presidents and sons of Presidents contributed—a younger Lee, a Grant, and Tad Lincoln all participated—along with congressmen, poets, song writers, cabinet secretaries and professors.

The format, divided as it was between photographs, their captions and the many essays on different subjects written by many different hands, permitted the re-enforcement of some subjects when text, photograph and caption agreed, but also permitted a kind of erasure or at least confusion, when these different parts were not in agreement.

The message of this multiple introductory framing, like the graphic framing of the many title pages and text sections showing silent canon and battle flags at rest, was double and harmonious. First, and emphatically, the war was over. No further animosity existed between North and South the reader learned again and again. The two Sections had fought and suffered and by they had been joined together in pain and the memory of common bravery. The volumes on subjects like prison camps and hospitals presented a tensionless denouement of sorrow equally spread between North and South and mixed with an assured patriotism underlined by the volume of portraits.

In the graphic decoration of the title and text pages the draped flags of Union and Confederacy constructed so many theatrical or proscenium arches for the text. Pain serving as unifying balm was applied in great quantities in The Photographic History of the Civil War.

There were many photographs of the dead. The state of outdoor photography in the s contributed to this. A dead man did not move. A photographer at the time required a portable darkroom near the subject where the photographer prepared his plates. He would carry this pane of glass coated with damp chemicals in a light-proof container to the place were it was to be exposed, expose it for the required amount of time in his camera, and then return to the darkroom.

Photographers had tents and wagons for this purpose, but it was almost impossible for them to work on the battlefield while the battle raged. Furthermore, exposure times meant that many subjects were impossible or produced eerie effects. If an American flag was blowing in the wind over a color guard at attention, it appeared as a kind of striped ghost hovering over the rigid men. The volume of the History devoted to cavalry is strangely devoid of horses except standing still with men on foot holding them. Horses in movement were too fast.

Even on the brightest days, at attention on parade, there are blurred heads and tails. Men engaged in combat, even if the photographer could have his equipment nearby, were impossible too. The horse stood quietly with its trooper. There is no way now, and probably there was not then, to be certain that that horse was ever anywhere near Gettysburg. Yet the book acknowledged no loss for this necessity of asking readers to make the jump from the quiet horse to a horse in action.

Why should the editors have worried about that act of imagination when again and again quiet stood for battle and the glint in the eye of a studio posed portrait stood for martial determination? The photograph was just a sign of the battle, that it contained a sign of a sign did it no harm. The photographs of the dead had a special place. A horse could be caparisoned for war even where there was no war; buildings can burn for many reasons that have nothing to do with bombardments; but a field or dell strewn or draped with the dead, especially the dead grotesquely swollen, days after the event, must be the terrible and unmistakable result of war.

In the summer of , Gardner was directing his own operation out of Washington, D. He understood very well the special relationship between photographs of bodies and an impression of the immediacy of battle. It was his pictures of the dead after the battle of Antietam that had received considerable publicity. Almost a year later, in the first days of July, , when he received the news of the battle in Pennsylvania between Robert E. He needed strong light for his work, and so had to stop by five in the afternoon. That is where Gardner spent most of July 6, and that is where the picture above was taken.

On the second day of the battle, southern officers had become aware of the importance of this topographic feature at the same time as their northern opponents. Had the Union forces not been able to hold onto the position, and several times they were pushed off its summit, it is quite likely that they would have lost the battle, as from those heights their line to the east was exposed. A deadly duel ensued where northern soldiers sent exploding shells into the rocks and southern marksmen tried to pick off northern officers.

The photograph caught a victim of this important duel during the last battle in which the South might have demoralized the North to the point of threatening the northern cause politically. Victory might also have helped the South obtain European recognition and aid. It was a most dangerous post to occupy, since the Federal batteries on the Round Top were constantly shelling it in an effort to dislodge the hardy riflemen, many of whom, met the fate of the one in the picture. Their deadly work continued, however, and many a gallant officer of the Federals was picked off during the fighting on the afternoon of the second day.

General Vincent was one of the first victims; General Weed fell likewise; and as Lieutenant Hazlett bent over him to catch his last words, a bullet through the head prostrated that officer lifeless on the body of his chief. A relative would have recognized him easily. He too was exposed and paid for any damage he may have caused with his own life.

The photographer always chooses the approach to a subject, after all, and in all the photographs of this man, and others on the Gettysburg battlefield, Gardner had most likely supplied the gun. According to William Frassanito, from whom much technical information for this article comes, no sharpshooter used the kind of gun in the photographs, and it is unlikely that two days after the battle, such an exposed souvenir would have remained.

The second pose, however, included an elaborate story that Gardner entirely invented. He had the sharpshooter await his death, stoically, with a knapsack under his head for a pillow. Instead they contented themselves with a moment extended over space in the narrative that maintained the balance and an emotional tie between the deaths of northerners and southerners. Was Lieutenant Hazlett as handsome and young as this soldier? Neither volume titles nor table of content entries mentioned black people directly.

Of course the section title also frames as comedy the very real accomplishments and sacrifices of black soldiers in military actions mentioned there. One of the most convoluted paragraphs in American historiography, written as a caption vol.

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The poem that appeared near the photographs expressed his willingness to have black Americans included in the army and killed in his place. The picture caption explained the verse, as well as the photographs of black people and white mansions:. Charles Graham Halpine comes to the rescue, in his poem that follows on page , with a saving sense of Irish humor.

Certainly, the line above presents a firm and soldierly front. Many of the colored regiments came to be well-disciplined and serviceable. Their bravery is attested by the loss of life at Battery Wagner and in the charges at Petersburg crater. Many photographs of destroyed and partially destroyed southern buildings decorated the pages of the History without captions drawing attention to their beauty.

When the white northern army destroyed something, apparently, it could be part of that great test of shared valor and pain that the book created. When black people seemed to take possession, as in these pictures, images of that possession, or merely presence, were viewed by The History as a desecration.

North and South can now share this human weakness too. JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. This website uses cookies to provide all of its features. By using our website you consent to all cookies in accordance with our Cookie Policy. Enter your email address below to sign up to our General newsletter for updates from Osprey Publishing, Osprey Games and our parent company Bloomsbury. Qty: Add to Basket.